DNA extraction

DNA isolation is a fundamental process in molecular biology that allows scientists to uncover the genetic code within cells. In practice, DNA isolation is the process of extracting and purifying a DNA molecule from various samples such as cells, tissues, swabs, agarose gel, FFPE blots, reaction mixtures, etc.

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By its very nature, DNA contains all the information needed to build and maintain an organism, determining everything from its physical characteristics to its susceptibility to disease.

However, DNA is carefully packaged and hidden inside the cell, causing difficulties along the way to isolate it. It is best to use DNA extraction kits that already contain all the necessary components and instructions, so that the result is guaranteed to be DNA of sufficient purity and quantity for further molecular studies.

DNA extraction involves the following steps: destroying cells to release DNA, separating it from other cellular components and obtaining a pure sample for further analysis.

This is done using special solutions and components:

  • Lysis buffers, which break down nuclear and cell membranes.
  • Salts and solutions to adjust pH and create better conditions for DNA precipitation.
  • Components for selective DNA sorption and precipitation.
  • Wash buffers, which are used to remove impurities that interfere with further experiments and reduce the accuracy of DNA analysis.
  • Elution buffer. This solution helps release purified DNA from the sorbent, making it ready for further experiments.
Improved DNA extraction kits contain proteinase K, an enzyme of the serine protease family that cleaves peptide bonds of proteins.

Proteinase K can be obtained from the fungus Tritirachium album. Proteinase K has a high level of stability and activity over a wide range of temperatures and pH. This makes it a versatile enzyme that helps in the efficient removal of proteins under various experimental conditions.

Why isolate DNA?

DNA isolation is needed for a number of research tasks.

Analyzing the genetic code. By extracting DNA from cells or tissues, molecular biologists can examine the sequence of nucleotides (A, C, G, T) that make up genes. This allows them to identify genes, find mutations, etc.

Production of multiple copies of DNA for experiments. The amount of DNA isolated is not always sufficient for the researcher's purposes. Therefore, many people then use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to make multiple copies of specific sections of DNA for further analysis and experimentation.

For DNA cloning and recombinant DNA technology. By extracting DNA, molecular biologists can cut and combine DNA from different sources to create recombinant DNA. This DNA can then be cloned in bacteria to produce large quantities of specific genes or proteins for research, medical or industrial use.

For genetic fingerprinting and forensic science. DNA from suspects or victims obtained from crime scenes to create DNA profiles for identification and criminal investigation purposes.

Studying evolutionary relationships. Molecular biologists extract and analyze DNA from different organisms to study how they are related during evolution.

To improve the speed of the experiment, the quantity and purity of the DNA extracted, we recommend you use Biolabmix kits. Ready-made solutions for DNA extraction from various sources are available in our catalog in the DNA Extraction section:

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